In the past, scientists tried to explain the ways in which diabetes develops, the metabolic changes that are key events in the disease, and how to deal with the disease and its complications, we could not even assume that we will soon face a real epidemic of Diabetes. We will not be mistaken if we say that the 21st century among other things is an era in which diabetes is on the rise and that we are really facing an epidemic that according to epidemiological studies and predictions does not intend to diminish, but on the contrary, the projections for diabetes patients by 2020 are far greater than that The number that we face today. Scrapping is the fact that by 2020 it is estimated that up to half of the US population will face diabetes. The past years have brought a lot of knowledge about how diabetes arises, which are the most common complications and how and why they occur. Today, diabetes is treated with insulin, or tablet therapy, depending on the type of diabetes. But the fact is that the hygiene-dietary regime and the pursuit of a healthy life and diet has a crucial role to play in the treatment of diabetes and prevent the occurrence of numerous complications from diabetes. In addition to adherence to therapy, regular controls are no less important than special programs and educational centers around the world with which professionals try to educate the population, encourage patients to apply a healthy lifestyle and, of course, prevent complications that diabetes carries with him that actually aims to help the sick learn to live with diabetes.
Diabetes as a metabolic disease:
Diabetes is not a disease where blood glucose is exclusively impaired, but is a disease of metabolism where the initial level of glucose is impaired as a result of a lack of insulin, but the metabolism of fats and proteins is also affected. In fact, the reduced or absent secretion of insulin by beta pancreatic cells (in type 1 diabetes) and sub normal insulin secretion, but insensitivity to tissues of excreted insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes are the underlying causes of hyperglycemia or increased concentration of blood glucose. In normal situations, insulin is a cavalry who opens the door to glucose so that it penetrates into each cell of the body and is used to obtain energy. But abnormal insulin secretion also results in disorders in the metabolism of fats, so that almost diabetics have an increased blood fat level (hyperlipidemia), an increase in cholesterol levels, primarily LDL (the bad one) and an increase in triglycerides that is the first Link in the chain of damage to the blood vessels. Protein metabolism is less affected. These basic disorders of the metabolism lead to a serious predisposition or predisposition to damage to the blood vessels. Blood vessel damage and preterm occurrence of atherosclerotic changes that constrain the vessel’s lumen and impair its passage as well as the stimulation of cell proliferation and thickening of the vessel’s own wall cause the most serious complications after years of living with diabetes. Thus changes in the level of small vessels are reflected by serious and irreversible damage to the kidneys, heart, eye, nerves and limbs. In fact, the damage to microcirculation is the main cause of poor blood flow to the organs and, of course, as a result of their poor function, and hence we can say that these are the fronts to which the diabetes is quietly, slowly but surely getting the battle.
Blood vessels are on strike:
Because almost all blood vessels are affected, the heart is another of the fronts where we often lose the battle. It is undoubtedly clear that diabetes is a risk factor for occurrence of coronary ischemic disease, that is, of myocardial infarction. In fact, due to the unregulated diabetes and the increased level of fat in the blood, early formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the blood vessels that feed the heart results. The narrowing of the blood vessels of the heart leads to inadequate blood flow through the coronary vessels, and with the advancement of the atherosclerotic process to the complete blockage of the blood vessels and the occurrence of a heart attack. In addition, peripheral blood vessels also suffer from trophic changes in the skin of the upper and lower limbs. Patients complain of coldness, reduced hair and hand fibers, fragility and nail changes, pallor and decreased sweating as well as hard-to-reach pulse of the limbs and of course in the end stage there are gangrenous changes that are absolute indication of limb amputation which It is not only physical but also psychological trauma for every person. Nerve-related changes are due to poor nutrition of the nerves due to changes in the local circulation leading to the onset of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy can be manifested as with altered skin sensitivity, usually on the lower limbs and feet, a feeling of coldness in the lower limbs in the form of socks, tingling, roasting and baking of the soles of the feet until the appearance of ulcer changes on the skin are known as diabetic foot. Also, as a result of damage to nerve cells, difficulties in digestion and its transit through the digestive system with a feeling of fullness and uneasiness in the stomach are the main symptoms of autonomic diabetic neuropathy.
The kidneys under the magnifying glass:
In patients with long-standing history of diabetes, kidney disease is most commonly suffered. This is expected in any patient with diabetes for more than 10 years. As a result of changes in the small blood vessels through which blood should be filtered, there are permanent damage that impairs blood flow through the kidneys and the formation of urine, so that diabetics can find a mild or moderately severe impaired renal function that can To be detected with the appearance of proteins in the urine or the so-called microalbuminuria or proteinuria. Proteinuria found in a diabetic is a serious indication that the kidneys suffer. Untreated, undiagnosed or those who do not adhere to treatment regimens end up as persons with chronic renal failure as a result of diabetes and of course become candidates for chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, regular routine control of urine in patients with diabetes is the way to keep the kidneys under the magnifying glass.
Diabetes thief of your sight:
No less important are the changes that are happening in the eye. Patients with diabetes may have different symptoms or visual impairments, such as: vague vision, narrowing of the field of vision, loss of clear vision, and total blindness as a result of changes in the small retinal vessels of the retinal nerve. Diabetesers also suffer from cataracts and glaucoma (increased eye pressure), and these are all serious conditions that make sugar barrier one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. To keep things moving too far, a regular ophthalmologic examination is recommended, good control of diabetes by regular therapy, proper diet and practice of healthy lifestyle.
Leading a healthy life is more important:
All these complications that make long-term diabetes seriously endanger human life and not only increase mortality and shorten life expectancy, but also cause a decrease in the quality of life of people and in the period when they are facing their illness. That’s why we should try to increase the awareness that these complications, although they cannot be completely stopped, can of course be minimized or at least delayed. In order to delay or reduce it is necessary to properly treat the disease, and patients regularly routinely control glucose glycemic control at home or at their own doctor, regularly take their therapy and what is more The way and the style of life, that is, the changing habits of life, is important. That the change in life habits and the conduct of a healthy life affects the disease is confirmed by an American study in which people who as a group of respondents were placed on a one-year diet that is poor in carbohydrates and fats and everyday regimen of mild physical activity, whilst the consumption Of food was reduced and quantitatively showed that body weight was significantly reduced by about 8.6% of the initial, and therefore the level of glucose, and the complications of the disease. These encouraging data should cause more diabetic patients to continue to fight the disease because they can significantly minimize the effects of its existence despite the fact that long-term diabetes is invincible. As healthcare professionals, it is our job to act educatively, preventively and curative, and of course patients in us to see serious support, but the patient is the one who needs changing life habits while tirelessly and daily runs the battle and learns to live with diabetes.